Men were engaged in collecting marine products. Because women and children were not granted any land, women had to go to the forests in the intertidal area to collect firewood and other marine products, all of which were sold at the local market to buy rice to support themselves and their families. Women were also in charge of selling their husbands' produce at the local market.
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They worked longer hours than men and took part in most production activities of their households. In addition, in a Confucian society, women were governed by the 'three obediences' Luong, When they were girls, they were expected to obey their fathers. After they got married, they owed obedience to their husbands. Finally, when they were widowed, they were expected to obey their eldest sons. A man also had the right to have concubines. Wives and concubines were not given land, but they were required to contribute labour to their husband's family.
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Mrs Ngon recounted her experience:. I did not have any right to my husband's property. Instead, I was the property of my father or my husband. Women were bought and sold as part of that property. We were not allowed to go to school. We were prohibited from ownership and inheritance. Many women were beaten by their husbands.
As a result, we were confined to the private sphere and household duties. During the French colonial period, women had access to wage work. They were hired by the colonizers to construct the dike, but they were paid less than men.
Original Research ARTICLE
During the period of the resistance war — , the villagers were severely exploited by the Japanese and suffered from shortages of rice, which later grew to become a famine. Landlords and rich peasants owned land, so no one from their families died of hunger during the famine. The highest death rate was among women and children. Women suffered the most. They worked very hard to earn a little cash to buy rice or to collect wild vegetables and mangrove fruits to support their families. Many women died during pregnancy. After the August revolution, most landlords fled.
New organizations, such as the Farmers' Association, were formed. In , the French returned and supported a Catholic-led insurrection against the Vietnamese government. Houses of Buddhist families were burnt, and many relied on timber from mangrove forests to rebuild their houses when they returned. The new French administration promoted the harvesting of mangrove trees for firewood. The heads of villages granted timber concessions to outsiders who then hired local people to cut the forests for firewood.
By and large, women were engaged in firewood collection. Buddhist women whose husbands were in hiding as professional soldiers or guerrillas were also engaged in collecting marine products to sell at the local market to buy rice for their families.
Ahmadreza Dehpor - IBB
At the same time, many women took part in clandestine activities, such as hiding Viet Minh cadres and digging tunnels for soldiers and villagers so they could hide from the French and the Catholics. Some women even served as secret agents, and some were arrested and tortured. In , the entire area was liberated from French rule, and many Catholic people went to the south of Vietnam. There was, however, no returning to the former ethic of mangrove conservation. Land reform in Giao Lac began in mid and was completed in mid All landlords and rich and middle-class peasants had to return to their land in the village if they had more than five sao a unit of area equal to m 2 of land per head.
For the first time since the village was established in , everyone was allocated an equal amount of land. As mentioned earlier, women had not previously been allowed to participate in village administration. They had been excluded from all activities in the village. For the first time in their lives, they were now allocated land.
This dramatically changed production relations in the village. In , the first experimental cooperative was established in Giao Lac. High-level cooperatives were established and individual ownership was eliminated. All rice paddies and draught animals and other means of production contributed by villagers became common property and were managed by the cooperative. The amount each member worked for one day was measured in points. Male members received ten points and female members received eight points.
During the following year period, the village managed the forests on behalf of the district. The local people were not allowed to go to the forests as before.
They were told to protect the mangroves, which would in turn protect the dike, which would in turn protect their property. The village militia unit was mandated by the village to protect the mangroves while preserving peace and order in the coastal area, and it prevented firewood collection in the mangrove forests. However, people clandestinely cut big mangrove trees for firewood. It was reported that only men cut trees, while women collected dry branches.
This role changed during the most difficult time under collective agriculture when villagers were generally excluded from the forests and the majority had trouble making ends meet. In this way, the government actually excluded the very people who knew best how to conserve the resources through their own conventions. The resulting depletion of the mangroves was Giao Lac's very own tragedy of the commons.
Mrs Khau recounted her experience as a firewood collector at the time:. We did not like those who stopped us and confiscated our firewood. We were wondering how dry branches could protect the dike. If we did not collect them, the wind and the waves would carry them away. Firewood collectors like us worked very hard. It took us half of a day to collect a bundle of firewood, which weighed 15—20kg. It was so muddy in the forests that it was very difficult to walk with a bundle of firewood on your shoulder.
When we carried the firewood to the dike, village cadres stopped us and confiscated our firewood, although we just collected dry branches. Both Catholic and Buddhist collectors had firewood confiscated from them. We went home with our empty hands after having spent half of a day working hard in the forests. We were very angry. But we could not do anything about it. We were like small fish and they were like big fish. Big fish always eat small fish. At the time, if someone had beaten us we would have suffered. Many collectors were brushing away their tears, while walking away and wondering what their children would have for the next meal.
During the Vietnam—US war between and , most young men joined the army, leaving the women and children home. As a result, women were engaged in ploughing rice fields, an activity that they had never been involved in before when men were at home, in addition to pulling up rice seedlings and transplantation.
They even carried rice seedlings and paddy with a shoulder pole, another activity that traditionally they had never done.
d2.june.dns05.com/serranillas-canciones-y-decires-anotado.php They became the heads of households and at the same time fulfilled their obligations as wives and daughters-in-law. They also encouraged husbands and sons to join the army when necessary. In such an exciting atmosphere of participating in combat, many young girls aged 18—20 in the village volunteered to be Vanguard Youth Women. Although they were not recruited to be professional soldiers, they were trained to be nurses and were involved in military support activities. In the village, women were recruited for political leadership, which had never happened before in the history of Giao Lac, as other studies have documented see Turley, ; White, ; Woodside, Previously, women were not allowed to register as dinh , and were therefore not allocated land.
They were excluded from all activities in the village and they never had a chance to go to school. Other women were assigned to lead Giao Lac's Women's Union and production brigades. The village women took care of both public and family affairs while engaged in labour production equal to that of men see also White, This pleased both those who were fighting at the battlefront and those who were at home.
The song 'Women of Three Responsibilities' Phu nu ba dam dang was composed at the time to praise those women. In addition, the women were still making a living collecting firewood and marine produce. In , in response to ocean encroachment and the land reclamation policy of the district, Giao Lac officials opened up Bien Hoa pond, mobilizing local people to clear the mangrove area of 54ha lying between the pond and ocean. Sea grasses were planted in former mangrove habitat for weaving floor mats for export to the former Soviet Union and countries in Eastern European.
However, by —, this estuary margin habitat had become more saline, exports had weakened and mat production was abandoned. Villagers then turned to the more lucrative enterprise of shrimp farming. In , the government of Vietnam started its programme of economic reforms known as doi moi. In the late s, a household-based economy increasingly displaced the cooperative-based economy Le and Rambo, The government of Vietnam shifted responsibility for management of natural resources away from village cooperatives into the hands of individual farm households Nguyen Cuc, ; Nguyen Huong, In , each household received an allocation of agricultural land based on the number of members 1.
Household heads, the majority of whom were men, signed the 'red book', documents that provided households with the right to use the land until Women did not receive individual rights to land, which were accorded only to men. Women were thus disadvantaged by legal policies regarding their ownership of resources such as land Ha, ;Tran and Le, During the doi moi period, China became the biggest importer of northern Vietnam's marine products. In Giao Lac, four additional shrimp ponds were constructed by the district.
Households or entrepreneurs bid publicly to lease a shrimp pond, with five to ten households cooperating to manage a pond. Although the bidding process was open to everyone, only the rich, who had sufficient capital, labour, management skills and access to political power, were able to participate in this process.